The COVID-19 pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been rapidly spreading, leading to considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. High infectivity of the virus, asymptomatic transmission and lack of effective anti-viral drugs and vaccines have made management of COVID-19 challenging. The continuous efforts to understand the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the pathogenesis of this disease may help shed light on development of therapeutic strategies to better control the pandemic.
In early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection, a collaborative innate and adaptive immune response is required to clear the virus and prevent disease progression to the severe stage. During the severe stage of COVID-19, different immune cell types may reach a dysfunctional and exhausted status therefore failing to control virus replication. The pathobiology of severe cases is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory cytokines with an influx of immune cells into the lung, possibly resulting in tissue damage and respiratory failure.
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- The viral structure of SARS-CoV-2 and immunopathology in different stages of infection
- Immune cell types and signaling molecules involved in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection
- Differences between functional and dysfunctional immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection
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